Adult Male Circumcision

What is Adult Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention?

Medical male circumcision refers to the surgical removal of some or all the foreskin of the penis by a trained health professional. The research that has been done to date also shows that medical male circumcision reduces men’s risk of HIV infection and genital ulcer disease. It is believed that removing the foreskin with the vulnerable cells and the resulting toughening of the skin covering the penis decreases a man’s risk of acquiring HIV during sexual intercourse.

Medical male circumcision refers to the surgical removal of some or all the foreskin of the penis by a trained health professional. The research that has been done to date also shows that medical male circumcision reduces men’s risk of HIV infection and genital ulcer disease. It is believed that removing the foreskin with the vulnerable cells and the resulting toughening of the skin covering the penis decreases a man’s risk of acquiring HIV during sexual intercourse.

Adult Male Circumcision Investment

Global public-sector and philanthropic investment in R&D and operations research related to voluntary medical adult male circumcision (VMMC) totaled US$26 million in 2014, a decrease of US$6 million from 2013. For the past five years, the BMGF funded the majority of VMMC research, supporting research in 2014 at US$18 million. The US public sector was the second largest funder, contributing US$3.7 million in 2014. ANRS and Wellcome Trust also contributed to research efforts in 2014, by US$1.2 million and US$2.7 million respectively. 

In 2014 several studies completed evaluation of strategies to increase the uptake of VMMC. Studies focused on financial compensation, a sports-based program, food vouchers and other methods.

  • An economic incentive trial in Kenya showed that uptake of VMMC was higher among those receiving higher monetary compensation.
  • A sports-based randomized trial in Zimbabwe showed increased uptake of VMMC, which was low overall, in the intervention arm. 
  • Several studies showing the safety and acceptability of new devices for VMMC completed in 2014, including studies using the ShangRing and PrePex devices. Further research is focused on the use of new VMMC devices in adolescents and by different types of providers. 
  • A comparative assessment of facilities in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe was undertaken showing mixed results in terms of facility preparedness for VMMC delivery. Another study elucidated the challenges of rapid development of sites with all of the necessary equipment, supplies and protocols for effective VMMC delivery. 

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